You know, currently there are several types of electric car batteries available. Each of these batteries has different characteristics so their use must be adapted to the car system.
As we know, some time ago the price of Fuel Oil or Fuel increased. This has made many people in Indonesia start thinking about switching to using electric cars. By using electric vehicles (EVs), people no longer need to worry when fuel prices rise again.
When compared to conventional cars that use fuel oil, electric vehicles or electric cars do have several advantages. For example, it does not cause air pollution, minimal maintenance, and battery charging costs which tend to be more stable.
For now, most electric cars are still priced at a fairly high price. Even so, please note that recently electric cars have emerged with a price range between Rp. 200-300 million. So, it is possible that in the next few years, the price of electric cars can become more affordable.
Well, if you are starting to be interested in using electric cars, then you need to understand in advance that the battery becomes one of the most important components for running such vehicles. The types of electric car batteries also vary and have different characteristics. Therefore, the use of car batteries needs to be adjusted to the car system in it.
How Electric Cars Work in General
Before you know the types of car batteries, it's good if you understand how this electric vehicle works or the working principle. Each electric car can certainly be different. But in general, the way the car works is as follows:
When the pedal on the car is stepped on, the controller will retrieve, manage, and regulate the electrical power from the traction battery and inverter.
Next, with the settings of the controller, then the inverter will send electric power from the battery to the electric motor.
After the electrical energy is sent to the electric motor, the electric motor will convert electrical energy into mechanical energy in the form of rotation or rotation.
The rotation of the electric motor will then rotate the transmission so that it makes the wheels turn and the electric car can move.
Types of Electric Car Batteries You Need to Know
In order for an electric car to move and be used, it will need a battery with a large capacity. Here are the types of electric car batteries.
1. Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion)
Lithium-ion or Li-ion is the type of battery in electric cars that is most often used. Please note that this type of battery is not only used by electric cars but also in other electronic devices such as cellphones or laptops. Even so, the scale of physical capacity and the size of Li-ion batteries in electric cars are certainly much larger.
For its characteristics, Lithium-ion batteries are batteries that can be recharged with relatively fast data charging. In addition, this type of battery also has good performance because it is safe to use, has a higher energy density than other batteries, has a low self-discharge rate, and has a long service life. Therefore, this type of battery is often used in electric cars.
In general, these batteries are used by BEV and PHEV type electric cars. Battery Electric Vehicle or BEV itself is a car that operates entirely using electricity on the battery, while the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle or PHEV is an electric car with two sources of drive to the wheels, namely a conventional engine and an electric motor.
2. Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH)
The next type of car battery is Nickel-metal hydride or NiMH. This type of battery is more commonly used in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) cars, but some BEV cars also use it.
This Nickel-metal hydride battery uses a different energy storage material than Li-ion, namely with hydrogen. While nickel and other metals (such as titanium) serve to maintain the cap of hydrogen ions. You also need to know that nickel-metal hydride battery types cannot get power from external sources. So, charging energy or power comes from the conversion of electrical energy at engine revolution, wheel movement or a combination of both.
When compared to Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries, these Nickel-metal hydride batteries tend to have a longer life and are easier to recycle because they contain very little material that is toxic to the environment. But unfortunately, the price of this type of electric car battery is relatively more expensive and has a high self-discharge rate.
Lead-Acid or SLA batteries are the oldest rechargeable batteries. Lead-Acid is sold at a low price but does not have a large capacity and is much heavier. Generally, this type of battery is only used in commercial vehicles as a secondary storage system.
As the name implies, Solid-state batteries eliminate the heavy liquid electrolyte present inside the Lithium-Ion battery. Instead, this type of battery uses solid electrolytes such as glass, ceramics, or other materials. When viewed from the overall structure, energy expenditure, and way of charging, this type of battery tends to be similar to traditional lithium-ion but without battery fluid.
The use of this type of battery has actually been done for many years ago for various devices such as pacemakers. Even so, the use of Solid-state batteries in the electric car industry is still relatively new.
Ultracapacitor is a type of car battery that is different from other electrochemical batteries because it actually stores polarized liquid between the electrode and the electrolyte. This type of battery is very suitable for use as a secondary storage device in electric vehicles because it can help electrochemical batteries increase their load level. In addition, this ultracapacitor battery is also used to provide additional power to electric cars during acceleration and regenerative braking.
The latter type of electric car battery is named Nickel-cadmium battery. This battery has several characteristics, namely a significant storage density and has a life of up to 500 to 1,000 charge cycles.
Even so, Nickel-cadmium has a very heavy weight. In addition, these batteries are also susceptible to the memory effect that is a decrease in battery performance when undergoing a partial "empty" cycle. You also need to know that the use of nickel-cadmium is currently prohibited because of the toxicity of cadmium that it can produce.